The largest volcano eruption occurs in the most beautiful country in Southeast Asia; Indonesia. The country has a rich archipelago with countless flora and fauna. The climate is perfect for farming and agriculture. But the most blessing is that the country is rich in volcano. Indonesia is a country with the most active ring fire. The largest volcano eruption ever noted occurred in this very country. On 10 April 1815, Tambora erupted the biggest volcanic content on the planet. The event was the largest within the past 10,000 years.
That day was a dark day for the land and also many other nations in the world. The volcano erupted more than 50 cubic kilometers of magma. The giant eruption formed a 6 km wide and 1250 m deep caldera. The eruption even created a drastic impact on the global climate. Because of the bad weather conditions, there were many direct victims due to this eruption. More than 100,000 people died because of the direct eruption and also illness that was caused by the climate crisis.
With the thick volcanic dust that covered the sky for weeks and months, the climate changed drastically causing a major failure in agriculture in various nations. People suffered from starvation. In addition, the eruption also caused a terrible weather condition which increases the outbreak of viruses that eventually lead to dangerous sickness.
The History of the largest volcano eruption
The supermassive Tambora stratovolcano creates a 60 km wide Sanggar Peninsula. It is located on the northern Sumbawa Island. The mountain was actually 4,000 m high before its first giant explosion. The summit was destroyed in a tremendous eruption more than 43,000 years ago. The early caldera was filled with lava flows until 10,000 years ago. After the flow completed, the volcano changed its activity with explosive eruptions. The explosion reached its culmination in the mammoth eruption in 1815.
50 to 150 cubic km of magma was erupted in 1815. The measurement reached 7 on the VEI scale. The altitude of its Plinian eruption column reached more than 40 km. A large amount of ash, volcanic gas and aerosol ware is thrown into the stratosphere. At that tragic event, pyroclastic flowed all sides of the sea around the peninsula. In addition, a huge amount of tephra fell on croplands. Approximately 60,000 fatalities occurred and all villages around the volcano were buried deep in thick pumice drop. In such terrible conditions, a tsunami of 10 meters high might have occurred due to the volcanic earthquake.
Not much of the settlements could be brought into the light. However, archeologists started the excavation for showing the remaining after that massive devastation. The site is then called the Pompeii of Indonesia due to the same disaster that occurred in both places.
The largest volcano eruption with such a huge death toll living on Sumbawa is a history that does not only leave impacts for the island but also to many other continents. Even other lands around the coastal area also got a terrible effect due to the explosion. The fatalities expand indirectly because the condition affected the global climate.
The year of 1816 became a year without a summer. Many European countries suffered from a severe famine. The indirect death toll reached 100,000 people. There are many theories concerning climate change in Europe due to the largest volcano eruption. One reason is that the increase of absorption of sunlight as the sky was veiled by aerosols and volcanic dust. The deposit consisted of H2SO3 that was formed by the So2 release. The tall eruption column dispersed around both hemispheres. That was why the climate changed to occur in Asia and also European countries.
Because sunlight could not pass through the volcanic dust deposit, the global temperatures dropped as much as 3 degrees Celsius. The year was a gloomy year since it had no summer and the temperature dropped that much. However, the climate started to get recovered.
Another largest volcano eruption that occurred the past twenty centuries is the Novarupta volcano eruption in 1912. The volcano was on the Alaska Peninsula. It is estimated that 15 cubic kilometers of magma erupted on June 6th. The eruption occurred for 60 hours. That was a long duration of eruption that made it possible to throw magma and other volcanic substance that is equivalent to 230 years of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii.
Because of the remote area, the mountain did not get much attention. Scientists did not explore the site until 1918. They then found the Ukak River valley. The river was full of volcanic deposits. The valley is famous as the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The largest volcano eruption created amazing natural conditions and landscapes. Today, we will be able to visit the remaining. Some of the volcanoes have gone through an evolution. The results are breathtaking. We can include the volcano trekking trip in our bucket list so we can witness the huge and breathtaking nature.